**AS
and A2 resources**

Download the A2 guideline for
writing up coursework

OR download the same A2
coursework guideline but with paragraph spacing removed. They are both
WORD files. It might be better to right click over the hyperlinks and
choose "Save Target __A__s"

**
Data and equations **

Each candidate will be provided with a
data sheet, a copy of
which will be printed at the beginning of each assessment unit written
paper. Except for ** barred equations and relationships** (see
here), equations will either be provided on the data sheet or given in
the question.

In order to achieve a proper understanding of the Physics involved it is expected that candidates will derive many of the equations during the course but questions requiring derivations will be set only for those equations so specified in the specification.

To see an online copy of the data sheet download the entire AS/A2 syllabus (in pdf format) and search for appendix D. (NB it's a big download - don't do it if you are in a hurry) Alternatively ask me for a photocopy of the data sheet.

** Calculators **

It is assumed that candidates will have the use of calculators which have at least the functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square root, sine, cosine, tangent, natural logarithms and their inverses, and a memory.

The following formulae for relationships between physical quantities cannot be provided for AS and A level candidates and they should therefore know them by heart.

(i) the relationship between speed, distance and time:

speed = distance / time taken

(ii) the relationship between force, mass and acceleration:

force = mass x acceleration F = m a

*
acceleration *= *change
in velocity / time taken.*

(iii) the relationship between density, mass and volume:

density = mass / volume

(iv) the concept of momentum and its conservation:

*
momentum = mass x *
*velocity
p = m v
*

(v) the relationship between force, distance, work, power and time:

*
work done = force x distance moved in direction of force*

power = done work / time taken = energy transferred / taken time

(vi) the relationships between mass, weight, potential energy and kinetic energy:

*
weight =
mass x gravitational field strength*

kinetic
energy = 1/2 mass x speed
^{2}

*
change in potential energy = mass x
*
*gravitational field
strength* x * change in
height*

(vii) the relationship between an applied force, the area over which it acts and the resulting pressure:

pressure = force / area

(viii) the Gas Law:

pressure x volume = number of moles x molar gas constant x absolute temperature

*
pV *= *nRT*

(ix) the relationships between charge, current, potential difference, resistance and electrical power:

*
charge *×= *current
x time DQ
= I Dt*

*
potential difference = current x *
*resistance V *=
*IR*

*
electrical power = potential difference x current P *=
*VI*

(x) the relationship between potential difference, energy and charge:

*
potential difference *=
*energy transferred
/ charge *

*
V *= *W
**/ **Q*

(xi) the relationship between resistance and resistivity:

resistance = resistivity x length / cross sectional area

*
R *= *rl
/ A*

(xii) the relationship between charge flow and energy and energy transfer in a circuit:

*energy = time current potential difference x current x time E =
VIt*

(xiii) the relationship between speed, frequency and wavelength:

*
wavelength speed = frequency x wavelength v = fl*

(xiv) the relationship between centripetal force, mass, speed and radius:

centripetal force = mass x speed^{2 }/ radius F = mv^{2}
/ r

(xv) the inverse square laws for force in radial electric and gravitational fields:

F = 1/4pe_{o
} x Q_{1}Q_{2} / r^{2
} F = - Gm_{1}m_{2} / r^{2}

(xvi) the relationship between capacitance, charge and potential difference:

capacitance = charge stored / potential difference

*
C *= *Q
/ V*

(xvii) relationship between the potential difference across the coils in a transformer and the number of turns in them:

__
potential difference across coil 1__ =
__number of turns in
coil 1__

potential difference across coil 2 number of turns in coil 2

V1/V2 = N1/N2