 A2 Module 4 Waves, Fields and Nuclear Energy Introduction:  This is the first A2 module building on the key ideas and knowledge covered in AS. The properties of waves are covered, gravitational and electric fields are introduced, as are the magnetic effects of currents. Candidates will also study the practical application of nuclear fission as a source of energy. You MUST learn the 5 formula in bold Oscillations and Waves Simple harmonic motion: graphical and analytical treatments Characteristic features of simple harmonic motion  Exchange of potential and kinetic energy in oscillatory motion Understanding and use of the following equations  a = - (2pf)2x x = Acos2pft v = ±2pf ÖA2 - x2 Graphical representations linking displacement, velocity, acceleration , time and energy  Velocity as gradient of displacement/time graph  Simple pendulum and mass-spring as examples and use of the equations  T = 2pÖl/g    simple pendulum T = 2pÖm/k   spring pendulum Candidates should have experience of the use of datalogging techniques in analysing mechanical and oscillatory systems Free and forced vibration SHM multi choice answers from old exam collection Qualitative treatment of free and forced vibration  Resonance and the effects of damping  Examples of these effects from more than one branch of Physics e.g. production of sound in a pipe instrument or mechanical vibrations in a moving vehicle Progressive wave Oscillation of the particles of the medium  Amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, phase, path difference  Recall and use of c = fl Longitudinal waves and transverse waves Examples including sound and electromagnetic waves  Polarisation as evidence for the nature of transverse waves; applications, e.g. polaroid sunglasses Superposition of waves, stationary waves The formation of stationary waves by two waves of the same frequency travelling in opposite directions; no mathematical treatment required  Simple graphical representations of stationary waves, nodes and antinodes on strings and in pipes. Interference The concepts of path difference and coherence  Requirements of two source and single source double-slit systems for the production of fringes  The appearance of the interference fringes produced by a double slit system. l = ws / D Appearance of the diffraction pattern from a single slit  The plane transmission diffraction grating at normal incidence  Optical details of the spectrometer will not be required  Derivation of:  nl= d sin q  Applications, e.g. to spectral analysis of light from stars Capacitance Capacitance Recall and use of C = Q /V Energy stored by capacitor Derivation and use of E = 1/2 QV and interpretation of area under a graph of charge against p.d. Graphical representation of charging and discharging of capacitors through resistors time constant = RC  Calculation of time constants including their determination from graphical data Quantitative treatment of capacitor discharge Q = Qo e -t/RC  Candidates should have experience of the use of a voltage sensor and datalogger to plot discharge curve for a capacitor Uniform motion in a circle w = v/r   w = 2pf   a = v2 / r  = rw2 where  is w angular speed Centripetal force equation Recall and use of F = - mv2 / r Gravity, Newton’s law, the gravitational constant F = - Gm1m2 / r2 Methods for measuring G are not included Gravitational field strength g=F/m   g = -GM/r2 (radial field) g = -DV/Dr Gravitational potential V V = -GM/r radial field)  Graphical representations of variations of g and V with r Motion of masses in gravitational fields Circular motion of planets and satellites including geo-synchronous orbits Coulomb’s law, permittivity of free space Recall and use of F = 1/4pe0    Q1Q2/r2 Electric field strength E Application, e.g. estimation of forces at closest approach in Rutherford alpha particle scattering  E = F/Q    E= V/d (uniform field) E = 1/4pe0  Q/r2   (radial field) Electric potential V = 1/4pe0  Q/r Motion of charged particles in an electric field Trajectory of particle beams Similarities and differences between electric and gravitational fields No quantitative comparisons required Magnetic effects of currents Force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field F = BIl (field perpendicular to current) Motion of charged particles in a magnetic field F = BQv (field perpendicular to velocity)  Circular path of particles; application, e.g. charged particles in a cyclotron Magnetic flux density B, flux f flux linkage Nf f = BA, B normal to A Electromagnetic induction Simple experimental phenomena, Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws For a flux change at a uniform rate  magnitude of induced e.m.f. = N Df / Dt Applications, e.g. p.d. between wing-tips of aircraft in flight Mass and energy Simple calculations on nuclear transformations; mass difference; binding energy Atomic mass unit, u Conversion of units; 1u = 9 31.1 Mev E = mc² Appreciation that E = mc² applies to all energy changes Graph of average binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number, A Fission and fusion processes. Induced fission Induced fission by thermal neutrons Possibility of a chain reaction Critical mass Need for a moderator in thermal reactors Control of the reaction rate Factors influencing choice of material for moderator, control rods and coolant Examples of materials Safety aspects Fuel used, shielding, emergency shut-down Production, handling and disposal of active wastes Artificial transmutation Production of man-made nuclides and examples of their practical applications, e.g. in medical diagnosis. Waves and nuclear applications past questions from old A-level PH02 Summer2001 to Spring1998 Waves and nuclear applications past questions from old A-level PH02 Summer1997 to Spring1995 Waves and Nuclear Energy - Interactive Glossary

Click this button to try out some quizzes

It's a link to a few multiple choice quizzes I wrote last year.  N.B. as yet there are NO resources in FunBrain that cover material from this module.  So far all there are only mechanics and astrophysics quizzes.
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